Visitors to New Zealand can be fined £2,500 for refusing to provide passwords to unlock electronic devices so customs officials can examine them under a new law.
A civil liberties group has condemned the new law as a grave invasion of privacy.
The law came into effect on October 1 as part of an update of customs legislation.
It also gives customs officials authority to copy data found on searched devices.
The New Zealand Council for Civil Liberties said the law gives customs officials the power to force travellers to unlock their smartphones without justification and without giving legal options to travellers to challenge the order.
It said the law invades the privacy of device owners and anyone they communicated with.